The most obvious way that humans impact the wellbeing of kangaroos is through shooting. When kangaroos graze in open areas they are most vulnerable to being shot for commercial and non-commercial purposes.
Adult kangaroos are shot at night when they are most active. These hunting conditions affect the ability of shooters to aim precisely and to comply with the Code which requires a headshot.
The main welfare issues that arise from the shooting of kangaroos includes the high wounding rates, the killing of females with dependent young, the inhumane methods used to kill young kangaroos and the damage that shooting causes kangaroo culture and society (mob).
The shooting of kangaroos can cause non-fatal head and body shots. Past studies indicate that non-fatal body shots are common and can potentially cause injuries and painful prolonged deaths to kangaroos. Studies indicate that non-fatal body shots are as high as 40% causing injuries and painful prolonged deaths. Non-compliance with the Code of Practice in both commercial and non-commercial killing is a major concern, particularly with respect to non-fatal body shots and the euthanasia of both mis-shot kangaroos and orphaned dependent young.